Periodontal Stem Cells To Treat Periodontitis!
Periodontitis is one of the major causes of teeth loss in adults, which is characterized by the infection and inflammation of bones and ligaments (support the teeth).
A team of researchers from Seoul, South Korea, have found an effective way of treating this dental condition. Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (PDLSCs) derived from the periodontal ligament (cells lining the root of the teeth) have shown promising results after they were tested on model dogs.
The study was conducted on modeled Beagle dogs with periodontal disease or gum disease, which in turn affected their molar and premolar teeth. PDLSCs were then injected into the affected areas and it was observed that these stem cells succeeded in regenerating the damaged alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, peripheral blood vessels, nerve cells and cementum.
The regeneration capacity of PDLSCs was remarkable in comparison with two other types of dental stem cells; periapical follicular stem cells (extracted from the root that is still in the process of development) and dental pulp stem cells (derived from the centre of the tooth) which were used for similar dental transplants.
In addition, PDLSCs exhibited higher alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and generated more number of calcium nodules than the other two stem cell types used in the study.
Previous studies which focused on xenogenic (taken from another species) bone graft in combination with growth factors to regenerate the damaged periodontal ligament proved ineffective.
According to Dr. Pill-Hoon Choung, the lead author of the current study, further research is needed to find out the factors that influenced PDLSCs to differentiate into new cells and stabilize the disease. The team also intends to determine the set of factors that made the three types of stem cells to react in a different way in the same environment.
This study not only emphasizes the availability of different stem cell sources but also their individual efficacy in treating the diseases.