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Types of Immune System Cells

The cells of the immune system in the human body are called as white blood cells, which is also known as Leukocytes. These cells are often differentiated as two types namely Granulocytes and Agranulocytes. This article explains briefly about the function of these immune system cells.

Types of Granulocytes Immune Cells:

There are three different types of granulocytes and they are namely Neutrophils, Eosinophils and basophils. The following is a brief explanation about the function of these cells.

  • Neutrophil: It defends against fungal or bacterial infections and some small inflammatory processes. It exists in an adult blood approximately from 54 to 62%. Its lifespan is from 6 hours to a few days. Pus forms due to its death and its increased activity in large numbers.

  • Eosinophil: It fights against parasitic infections and allergic reactions like asthma, hay fever etc. It exists in an adult blood approximately from 1 to 6%. Its lifespan is from 8 to 12 days.

  • Basophil: It battles against antigens and allergic reactions by delivering a chemical known as histamine, which causes inflammation. It exists in an adult blood approximately less than 1%. Its lifespan is from a few hours to few days.

Types of Agranulocytes Immune Cells:

Agranulocytes includes cells like lymphocytes, macrophages and monocytes. The following is a brief explanation about these cells.

  • Lymphocyte: There are three different types of lymphocytes, which are B cells, T cells and natural killer cells. It exists in an adult blood approximately from 25-33%. Their lifespan is from weeks to years.

  • B cells: It delivers anti bodies which binds with pathogens and makes it possible for destruction. It also helps in the T cells activation.

  • T cells: They are vital in the protection against intracellular bacteria. It also helps recover the immune system to function normally, after an infection and helps avoid auto immunity.

  • Natural Killer cells: They kill cells of the body which are viral infected and cancerous cells. They act as messengers between natural and adaptive immunity.

  • Monocyte: It helps multiply macrophages and dendritic cells. They move quickly to places of infection and brings forth an immune response by dividing into macrophages and dendritic cells. 50% of them are stocked in the spleen.

  • Macrophage: Its role is to absorb and digest cellular debris and infectious agents. It also help trigger more immune cells to act against infectious agents.

  • Dendritic cells: Their main job is to advance antigen materials( molecules which bind to anti bodies) and give it on surface to different immune system cells. They act as messengers between natural and adaptive immunity.

Each of these cells have a specific range of count and if at anytime there is a decrease or an increase in the count of these cells, the person suffers from ailments of immune system.

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