Hyperemesis Gravidarum – Causes and Symptoms of Hyperemesis Gravidarum
Hyperemesis gravidarum is a rare complication observed in pregnant women. It is morning sickness condition that only affects during pregnancy. It happens as a result of dehydration, imbalance of electrolytes and malnutrition during pregnancy. The condition is accompanied by vomiting and nausea that can occur at any time. The pregnant women do not feel like eating and having water but continue to gain weight. Some pregnant women may develop severe morning sickness and the condition may aggravate and stay throughout the pregnancy.
It is estimated that about 70 to 85% women get affected with this condition during pregnancy. Hyperemesis gravidarum is more common in young pregnant women or women who had multiple pregnancy in very short period of time. The condition subsides by the end of 14 weeks of pregnancy i.e by first trimester.
Causes of Hyperemesis Gravidarum
The exact cause of hyperemesis gravidarum is not known till date. But some theories explain that there are few factors that may cause hyperemesis gravidarum. The factors include:
- Emotional changes occurring in pregnancy such as anxiety and stress
- Hormonal changes such as increased levels of progesterone, estrogen and beta HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotrphin)
- Digestive tract dysmotility i.e food does not move smoothly along the digestive tract
- Deficiency of nutrients
- Women who had the condition in previous pregnancy are at risk
- A bacteria called Helicobacter pylori mat also play a role in causing hyperemesis gravidarum. But a precise explantion was not given to this factor.
- Hyperemesis gravidarum may also be a genetic cause. Pregnant women with family history of morning sickness are at higher risk to develop the condition.
Symptoms of Hyperemesis Gravidarum
The signs and symptoms of hyperemesis gravidarum include:
- Weight loss
- Frequent urination
- Severe dehydration
- Nausea accompanied with vomiting
- Food aversions, which means the food doesn’t seem to be tasty
- Sensitivity to environmental odours