Hypertension – Causes and Symptoms of Hypertension
Hypertension is a condition of high blood pressure. Blood pressure is the measure of force of blood against the walls of arteries as the blood is pumped by the heart through the arteries to the whole body. If this blood pressure is high, the heart should work harder to pump the blood leading to serious health problems such as heart stroke and attack.
The normal blood pressure in any individual is 120/80 which represents the systolic and diastolic measures. This normal pressure alters and goes high in case of hypertension. Hypertension affects everyone at any stage of the life. It is estimated that about 73 million people are affected by hypertension in the United States.
Causes of Hypertension
The exact causes of hypertension are not known but there are factors that increase the risk of hypertension. The factors that may cause hypertension are:
- Using tobacco i.e in the form of smoking
- Being obese
- Tumours of adrenal and thyroid glands
- Chronic kidney diseases
- Having a family history of high blood pressure
- Medications such as birth control pills
- Age factor
- Consumption of excess alcohol
- Vitamin D deficiency
- Consumption of low levels of magnesium, potassium and calcium
- Intake of high salt levels
- Lack of physical exercises
- Sedentary lifestyle
- Stress in the daily life and work
- Inelastic and hardened blood vessels caused by arteriosclerosis
Symptoms of Hypertension
In most of the cases of hypertension, symptoms do not occur. Extreme hypertension can lead to the following symptoms:
- Blood in the urine
- Irregular heartbeat
- Problems in breathing
- Chest pains
- Difficulty in vision
- Severe headaches
- Elevation in certain components of blood like serum creatinine and urea
If hypertension condition remains for a longer period, blood vessels damage extensively and thus the flow of blood is impaired. The blood vessels also rupture causing blood clots that stop the flow of blood leading to tissue damage. The above consequences can occur either in the kidneys causing renal failure, in the heart causing heart attack or in the brain causing a stroke.
Consult a health professional immediately if you experience any of the above symptoms of hypertension. The doctor diagnoses the condition by measuring the blood pressure with a device called sphygmanometer. The systolic and diastolic numbers are checked and if the measure is high than the normal, you are diagnosed with hypertension.