Know About Nature Through Basic Sciences
Nature is made up of living things and non-living things. The living things are plants, animals and human beings. The non-living things are matter and energy. Living things are made up of basic building blocks of life, called cells and tissues. Non-living things are matter and energy. Cells, tissues, matter and energy are made up of atoms and molecules.
The branch of knowledge which tries to under nature in all its complexities is the Basic Sciences.
It involve subjects like Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry and Biology primarily. Physics is an attempt to understand matter and energy. Biology tries to understand cells and tissues. Chemistry deals with gaining knowledge about atoms and molecules. The knowledge gained by these categories of basic sciences is expressed in the scientific language of Mathematics.
The working of nature is complex. Man tries to understand the working of nature using his mental abilities of imagination and logical thinking. The process is called Scientific method. It primarily consists of five stages. They are:
Observation: The ability to observe events around his surrounding is the fundamental reason for man’s progress over the centuries. The part of the nature we observe, at a given point of time, is called physical system.
Hypothesis: Based on the observation, man forms and proposes a possible explanation of the events. He relies upon the belief that every effect that follows has a cause before it. This unverified and possible explanation for the happening of an event is called as hypothesis. The hypothesis predicts of certain unobserved events to take place in near future. The predictions are based on man’s intelligence and creativity.
Experiment: To be sure of his hypothesis on the working of a physical system, man designs means to verify them. These means are the experiments. A physical system has several properties associated with it. These properties are called the physical quantities. When we use scientific method to understand a physical system, we take in consideration only those physical quantities which are relevant to our interest, for simplicity. Such a simplified substitutes of the complex physical system is called a Model. It is designed to carry out the experiment. In the experiment, verification of claims and predictions of the hypothesis is made. It provides valuable information about the real physical system, called Data. The place where the experiment is carried out is called the laboratory.
Analysis: In this section, the Data provided by the experiment is tried to be given some meaning. Scientific language of Mathematics is used in gaining clear and credible knowledge about the role of the physical quantities in the working of the physical system. This knowledge coupled with the verified explanations about the physical system form a scientific theory. In this way, the results of experiments prove whether a scientific theory can be believed by one and all or rejected.
Conclusion: Using the knowledge gained from an established scientific theory, some set rules about the working of a physical system are formed. These rules are called physical laws. Scientists rely on the physical laws associated with different physical system to further their knowledge about nature.